By Matthew J. Hoffmann
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Extra resources for Ozone Depletion And Climate Change: Constructing A Global Response
Stabilization of expectations around the standard—shared expectations. Norms structure what agents understand about the world around them. A universal participation norm leads states to expect that all states will participate. • Self-reinforcement. Once established, social structures exhibit stability as norms elicit self-reinforcing behavior and eventually may be institutionalized and taken for granted. 7 The Verbal Model 35 For constructivists, these social norms are not objective aspects of the world, nor do they exist only in the minds of individual agents.
Articulating such a dynamic perspective has been no easy task for constructivists. In fact, friendly critics of constructivism (often from within constructivist ranks) have noted deficiencies in the move from the overarching philosophy of mutual constitution to the construction of analytic frameworks for studying empirical puzzles. The most important of these critiques tend to cluster around the lack of mechanisms describing how agents interact with the rules and norms that compose their social context.
Universal participation is still at the foundation of both the North-first and universal commitment perspectives on participation. Both of these alternatives contain within them the notion that all states should participate in governance activities—both call for large-scale negotiations and collective action. Science is similarly unable to explain the evolution. 45 In fact, each side used “science” to push its own understanding of participation. In advocating common but differentiated responsibility, the United States drew upon the scientific estimates that Southern contributions to the problem would outpace Northern contributions in the twenty-first century.