AQA History AS Unit 2 A New Roman Empire? Mussolini's Italy, by Chris Rowe

By Chris Rowe

Written to hide the AQA heritage a degree Unit 2 specification (HIS2K), our pupil booklet offers a targeted examine key occasions in Italy from 1922 to 1945 and permits scholars to realize a better realizing of the interval and review the main concerns.

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Extra info for AQA History AS Unit 2 A New Roman Empire? Mussolini's Italy, 1922-1945

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He had gained popularity through propaganda, economic recovery and foreign successes. The process of consolidation was not fully complete, however. It was not until 1 929 that Mussolini was finally able to neutralise the enormous influence of the Catholic Church by the Lateran Pacts with the papacy. It was not until the late 1 93 0 s that the fascist regime was really radicalised . , Revision exercise Consider the evidence in this chapter about Mussolini's consolidation of power after his initial appointment as prime minister in 1 922.

Futurism was based on the excitement and modernity of the 'new city'. Mussolini, however, turned away from modernism and idealised the virtues of 'ruralism' and peasant values in preference to the 'wicked city'. Fascist propaganda was much more enthused by linking Fascist Italy to the past. II Did you know? Fasces were the bundles of wooden rods with an axe that sym bolised authority in Ancient Rome. The fasces provided the basis for the word 'Fascism'. Fascism endlessly linked itself to the glories of Ancient Rome.

P ropagan d a a n d the cu lt o f the lead e r Dictators are human. Even Hitler and Stalin were human. The following pen-picture of Mussolini by the travelling American journalist, John Gunther, is useful because it was written in 1 93 6, before Mussolini became a hate figure in the western democracies ( Source 6 ) . The things M ussolini hates most are H itler, aristocrats, money, cats and old age. He detests old people, especially old women. He dislikes references to the fact that he is a grandfather; and when, on j u ly 29, 1 93 3 , he reached the age of fifty, the Italian press was not allowed (he has assiduously fostered the 'cult of Rome' ) , his daughter Edda, to mention it.

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