By Donald L. Horrocks
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Additional info for Applications of Liquid Scintillation Counting
148 (1966). IS. J. B. Birks, in "Organic Scintillators and Liquid Scintillation Counting" (D. L. 1-lorrocks and C. T. Peng. ), p. 3. Academic Press, New York, 1971. R. Voltz, 0. Laustriat, and A. Coche, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 257, 1473 (1963). F. N. Hayes, B. S. C. Sanders, Nucleonics 13(l), 46(1955). A. Weinreb, Proc. Conf Organic Scintillation Detectors, Univ. of New Mexico, 1960, (0. H. Daub, F. N. Hayes, and E. ), TID-7612, p. 59. U. S. At. Energy Commission, Washington, D. , 1961. G. Laustriat, R.
With many of the solutes used in liquid scintillation counting the energy transfer process approaches 100 efficiency at moderate solute concentra- tions, 7-10 g/liter. Berlman (17) showed that essentially all the energy transfer occurred by nonradiative processes. Three different and independent methods gave identical results: measure of the fluorescence lifetime, measure of solvent fluorescence intensity, and measure of solute 0 5 Concentroton, Fig. 111-5. phenyl; 15 g/lter Concentration dependency of the scintillation yield.
The excited solute molecules will then return to the ground state with the release of energy. When this energy appears in the form of a photon the process is referred to as fluorescence. The energy can also be utilized in nonphoton-producing events s s F I ISA' sot ' F0 So Solvent Solvent molecule 2 molecule t (a) Fluor molecule Solvent molecule (b) Schematic of (a) solventsolvent energy transfer (monoenergetic), and (b) solvent solute energy transfer (exothermic). Fig. 111-4. 47 Concentration Dependency called nonradiative processes.