By K. Harris
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Extra resources for Aphids As Virus Vectors
Barley and oats are colonised by more or less the same aphids as wheat, but winter sown oats and barley may also bear large populations of Metopolophium festucae in the long cool British springs. These populations decline when the weather gets warmer. Barley is sometimes colonised by Rhopalosiphum maidis which although probably native to eastern Asia where males are quite common, was originally described from America on maize and over winters parthenogenetically in most parts of the world. Maize dwarf virus is unusual in being transmitted by a root-feeding aphid, Tetraneura ulmi.
Miscanthi. S. fragariaebut has a longer and more pointed cauda. In warmer small grain cereal growing areas the pale green Schizaphis graminum (=Toxoptera g) occurs on the leaves of wheat. In cooler areas the paler green aphid is usually Metopolophium dirhodum. In South Africa and South America a number of outbreaks of M dirhodum were wrongly attributed S. graminum. M. dirhodum overwinters as eggs on rose but populations which overwinter parthenogenetically on Gramineae have also been found. M. dirhodum may be unusual in displaying only a weak 'edge effect', flying alatae landing all over the field instead of concentrating at the windward edge as in many aphids.
As different species do better under different conditions, a greater diversity of natural enemies is more likely to contain a species suited to any particular situation. However natural enemies react with each other in a variety of ways, and in general this interaction is to the advantage of the aphid. For instance some anthocorids and sphecids prey on moribund, parasitised aphids in pre ference to the more active unparasitised individuals. Parasitised aphids often become particularly active and start wandering just before they become mori bund.