Antimicrobial Peptides and Human Disease by A. J. Ouellette (auth.), William M. Shafer Ph.D. (eds.)

By A. J. Ouellette (auth.), William M. Shafer Ph.D. (eds.)

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It is believed that the constitutive production and deposition of neutrophils is of crucial importance to maintaining the immunological balance of the mouth. Patients who suffer from morbus Kostman, a severe congenital neutropenia, and are treated with G-CSF to restore neutrophil level, do not express LL-37 in these cells. One of the manifestations of this disease is frequent and severe infections and periodontal disease (Putsep et al. 2002). It has been proposed that the absence of LL-37 may give a selective advantage to bacteria that at low levels are commensals but at higher levels are responsible for periodontal disease.

E. Bowdish et al. that many of these properties are mediated though direct interaction of peptides with the cells of the innate immune response including monocytes, dendritic cells, T cells and epithelial cells. The importance of these peptides in immune responses has been demonstrated since animals defective in the expression of certain host defence peptides show greater susceptibility to bacterial infections. In the very few instances in which human patients have been demonstrated to have defective host defence peptide expression, these individuals suffer from frequent infections.

Role of Host Defence Peptides in Chemokine Production and Chemotaxis Anti-inflammatory (Anti-endotoxin) Roles of Host Defence Peptides . . Interactions with Effector Cells of the Innate Immune Response . . . . NK Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monocytes and Macrophages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mast Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Epithelial Cells . . . . . . .

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