By Th. Mulder-Krieger, R. Verpoorte (auth.)
To date, numerous chances exist to alter the genetics of crops together with classical breeding and sleek molecular organic ways reminiscent of recombinant DNA innovations and plant trans formation equipment. the purpose of this booklet is to study the feasibilities, provided by means of the present applied sciences, to change flower colors. end result of the nice significance of anthocyanins as flower pigments, the most a part of this research offers with this classification of flavonoids accountable for so much red-, red- and blue shades. Being electron poor, the flavylium nucleus of the anthocyanins is very reactive and undergoes - established upon pH - quite simply structural adjustments that are coupled with color alterations. a couple of mechanisms that stabilizes the colored - at fee of the colourless buildings in crops are defined, together with acylation, co pigmentation and steel advanced formation. simply because no plant species possesses the genetic skill for generating forms within the complete spectrum of colors, guy has searched for how you can swap the genetic homes of vegetation. lately, traditional flower breeding is a growing number of being supplemented through genetic engineering recommendations. This expertise deals the prospect to insert particular genes into the phone genome and to move genes so much successfully among diverse organisms. the typical flower pigments, the anthocyanins, were studied for a few years and signify now the simplest understood workforce of secondary plant metabolites with admire to (bio)chemistry and genetics.
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Additional info for Anthocyanins as Flower Pigments: Feasibilities for flower colour modification
Sequence of me thylation pH optimum; pI Effects ofMg2+ and EDTA Original reference ibid. 4 Mg2+ (+)3 c-e ibid. 4 None f ibid. 7 Mg2+ (+)3 c-e EDTA (-)5 ibid. 7 Mg2+ (+)3 f EDTA (_)5 ibid. 0 None ibid. 9 Mg2+ (+)3 EDTA (_)5 ibid. 9 ibid. 2. (continued) Original reference Source of enzyme Compoundl converted Position! sequence of me thylation pH optimum; pI Effects of Mg2+ and EDTA ibid. 7; - 22 ibid. 1 Mg2+ (+)) EDTA (_)5 Nicotiana tabacum leaf Caffeate; 5-0H-ferulate 2) 3 - 22 - 22 n,o ibid. Protocatechuate 2) 3,4 Esculetin 2) 6, 7 - 22 - 22 n,o ibid.
ANTHOCYANIN) "I (ANTHOCYANtDINI Pelargonidin OH OH ! . I HO. A OH __ "__ OH CIS ~ Peonldin yOH Leucocyonldln DH OH 13! OH ~OH WV HO. HO Dthydroquercetin DHO Yrr"OH "OH ~ I ~ HOll')'O)"& Api9en1n (FLAVONE I OH 0 '" HOqOH l"' 1992). F3H, isolated from a red Petunia cultivar, has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight of this native enzyme is about 74 000. Only the (2S)-flavanones and not the (2R)-enantiomers are substrates for this enzyme. F3H converts (2S)-naringenin (5,7,4'trihydroxyflavanone) as well as (2S)-eriodictyol (5,7,3' ,4' -tetrahydroxyflavanone) and the products formed are (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol (3,5,7,4' -tetrahydroxy-dihydroflavanol) and (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin (3,5,7,3' ,4' -pentahydroxy-dihydroflavanol), respectively (Heller and Forkmann, 1988; Britsch, 1990).
1992). F3H, isolated from a red Petunia cultivar, has been purified to apparent homogeneity and the molecular weight of this native enzyme is about 74 000. Only the (2S)-flavanones and not the (2R)-enantiomers are substrates for this enzyme. F3H converts (2S)-naringenin (5,7,4'trihydroxyflavanone) as well as (2S)-eriodictyol (5,7,3' ,4' -tetrahydroxyflavanone) and the products formed are (2R,3R)-dihydrokaempferol (3,5,7,4' -tetrahydroxy-dihydroflavanol) and (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin (3,5,7,3' ,4' -pentahydroxy-dihydroflavanol), respectively (Heller and Forkmann, 1988; Britsch, 1990).