By Aldous Huxley (editor)
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Extra info for An Encyclopædia of Pacifism
The London Transport Board and the Port of London Authority are essays in the limitation of capitalism. The Post Office, municipal services for transport, light, water, roads and the like are examples of full-blown socialism already at work. The Cooperative Movement has shown that, without violence and even without the backing of state or municipality, private individuals can create, in the midst of capitalist 40 surroundings, a flourishing island of non-competltlVe, non-exploiting, non-pro fit-making economic activity.
Education and Peace In totalitarian states all education is avowedly an education for war. The military training of children in these countries begins almost before they are out of the kindergarten. The period of compulsory military service at eighteen or twenty is merely the culmination of an educational process which has been going on for years. Military discipline and training in the use of arms is accompanied by a training in nationalistic fervour. This is carried out mainly by means of the teaching of history.
The rapid rearmament of Germany has manifestly served as an example for the recent rapid increase in French and British armaments. All armament races are essentially the fruit of example. Under the pressure of fear, suspicion and desire for prestige, each competing nation feels bound to imitate the others. Gun is pitted against gun, plane against plane, poison bomb against poison bomb. In the end, one of the competitors finds that the strain is too great, and trusting in a momentary superiority, precipitates the catastrophe; or else there is an "incident"-a political assassination, such as that which served as pretext and occasion for the World War, a frontier skirmish, an insult to the flag; accidentally and against the conscious wishes of all concerned, the machinery of destruction is set in motion.