By G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor Dr. Jai Prakash Gaur (eds.)
Algae, commonly held because the imperative basic manufacturers of aquatic structures, inhabit all feasible habitats. they've got nice skill to deal with a harsh setting, e.g. super low and high temperatures, suboptimal and supraoptimal mild intensities, low availability of crucial meals and different assets, and excessive concentrations of poisonous chemical compounds, and so on. a mess of physiological, biochemical, and molecular concepts let them to outlive and develop in annoying habitats. This publication offers a severe account of varied mechanisms of pressure tolerance in algae, lots of that can ensue in microbes and crops as well.
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Additional resources for Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms
G. TRIS) in studies of Ci affinity (cf. Axelsson et al. 2000, Fig. 2 and below) and lack of accurate methods for the determination of extracellular CA activity (Mercado et al. 1998) may invalidate some earlier conclusions on Ci acquisition mechanisms. Despite this, there are indications that a few species of macroalgae (preferentially sublittoral red forms) may depend more or less completely on this means of Ci utilisation, at least in their natural habitat (Johnston et al. 1992; Maberly et al.
Fig. 2). Thus, while many red and brown macroalgae appear to have a CCM at the plasma membrane level, little is known of CCMs inside the cells. This is true also for the type 2 mechanism because the HC0 3" transporter is a proposed anion exchange protein that only facilitates this transport along an electrochemical gradient but cannot transport HCO l " against it (Drechsler et al. 1993, 1994; Axelsson et al. 1999). Unlike in terrestrial plants, C4 metabolism has not been reported to be a common CCM in algae.
The second consequence is potential overexcitation of the photosynthetic apparatus, eventually leading to a decreased photosynthetic performance over longer periods (primarily through photo inhibition, Hanelt et al. 1992, 1993, 1994) or even to irreversible damage of the photosynthetic apparatus (Long et al. 1994; Demmig-Adams and Adams 2000). g. photorespiration, Demmig-Adams and Adams 1992,2000). The great number and variety of such mechanisms is perhaps the best indication of the importance of avoiding stress caused by a low CO 2 supply.