Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems: Volume by James C. Lin

By James C. Lin

This finished and topical quantity offers a couple of major advances on many fronts during this region of study, fairly emphasizing present and destiny biomedical functions of electromagnetic fields.

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A. , 1989, Normal amniotic fluid changes throughout pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. , 161(2):382–388. 38 Maria J. Peters et al. M. P. , 2002, Fetal magnetocardiography: Clinical relevance and feasibility, Physica C, 368:10–17. M. C. Gilette and A. , Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 293–302. , Oren R. , 1998, Evidence for a central origin of the low frequency oscillation in R-R-interval variability, Circulation, 98(6):556–561. P. , 1995, Successful in utero therapy of fetal heart block, Am. J. Obstet. , 173(5):1384–1390.

The required dynamic range evaluated for power-line interference is equivalent to 21–22 bits precision. In order to achieve this dynamic range, a digital fluxlocked loop is used in which the amplified output voltage of the SQUID is digitized instead of the output voltage of the flux-locked loop. The loop is closed digitally in a point of the flux-voltage characteristic where VOˆ is maximal. The digital flux-locked loop maintains its Fetal Magnetocardiography 19 locking while the change of flux at the working point is in the range ± 0 .

Besides noise at the powerline frequency, noise at frequencies that are harmonics of 50 or 60 Hz is frequently present. In addition, there are more periodic disturbances to consider, for instance, those from computer monitors, motors, vacuum pumps, ventilation systems or traffic. To appreciate the magnitude of environmental disturbances relative to the fetal MCG, see Fig. 2. 2) When measuring a fetal MCG, metallic objects worn by the mother give rise to disturbances. For instance, a watch generates a magnetic field of the order of 10−9 T.

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