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Additional info for Access technologies : DSL and cable
The telephone wire in households is not a reliable termination, because wire quality varies greatly, unterminated wire runs are common, and telephone sets being unplugged or going off hook cause sharp impedance changes. Also, the telephone sets themselves are of varying quality, and, since they are connected in parallel across the line, the quantity of sets on the line affects the impedance. The splitter isolates the line from these variations. lite, an ADSL variation, to eliminate the need for a splitter.
A simple splitter separates voice from the data signal. The modems detect which channels may be impaired and spread the data to unimpaired channels. The upstream direction can use bins 6 to 38, which is about 25 to 163 kHz. 1 MHz) are used downstream. This method of modulation is inherently rate-adaptive because it uses all the available channels and ignores those that have poor transmission quality. For example, if an AM broadcast station is interfering with a band of frequencies, these bins are skipped.
Lite, an ADSL variation, to eliminate the need for a splitter. The objective was to enable subscribers to install the service without the need for a technician visit. 413. lite uses 96 upstream bins, which limits the throughput to about 400 kHz. 5 Mbps, depending on the length of the loop to the central office. ATM is used as the transport medium. lite is designed to retrain itself rapidly in the face of sudden impedance changes, as when a phone is lifted off-hook. 60 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable DSLAM The DSLAM separates voice-frequency signals from data at the CO end.